The exact definition of what qualifies a co-operation to be defined as a co-production is open to discussion. Here is EDNs understanding of the term and how it is to be understood in THE EDN CO-PRODUCTION GUIDE.
First of all the term is used for 2 very different co-operations: a co-operation between 2 or more production companies or a co-operation between a broadcaster and a production company.
In the EDN CO-PRODUCTION GUIDE you will find examples of both.
The headings NATIONAL FUND or OTHER FUNDS deal with co-productions between companies from different countries. The heading TV deals with co-productions between a broadcaster and a company from another country than the broadcaster.
1. CO-PRODUCTION BETWEEN COMPANIES
A co-production is defined as a co-operation between 2 or more companies, that jointly
This must be stated in a Co-production Agreement, signed by the co-producers that
All the countries that are represented here in the EDN CO-PRODUCTION GUIDE have signed the European Convention on Cinematographic Co-production. Currently a total number of 43 countries have ratified the convention.
If a co-production applies to the guidelines of the Convention, the co-production can access national funding in the country of each participating co-producer on equal terms as a national production.
To apply to the convention the most important conditions are:
In THE EDN CO-PRODUCTION GUIDE you will find, that many countries has national restrictions that limit in practice the access to national funding, even if the co-production applies to the convention. This can for example be reflected in the so-called Culture Test that require a high national relevance in terms of content and/or artistic participation from the country.
The national requirements can also be a high level of expenditure and/or production days in the country.
If a co-production receives funding from EURIMAGES (guidelines very similar to the ones in the Convention) it is not applicable for TV-funding from Creative Europe (http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/eurimages/default_en.asp).
2. CO-PRODUCTION BETWEEN A BROADCASTER AND A COMPANY
A Co-production contract in this case is a completely different agreement than the one entered between production companies. There are no international conventions, bilateral agreements or national guidelines that regulate co-productions between broadcasters and companies; hence the contracts differ very much.
A Co-production reflects a strong involvement from the broadcaster in the production. Compared to a Pre-sale, this would very often involve:
Some broadcasters only enter co-productions with companies from their own country. This is especially the case in countries with a small production capacity in the independent sector and a broadcaster that only engage in few co-productions.
In the EDN CO-PRODUCTION GUIDE we have only included co-productions where the majority producer comes from another country than the broadcaster.